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Research papers, The University of Auckland Library

This article argues that teachers deserve more recognition for their roles as first responders in the immediate aftermath of a disaster and for the significant role they play in supporting students and their families through post-disaster recovery. The data are drawn from a larger study, 'Christchurch Schools Tell Their Earthquake Stories' funded by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation and the University of Auckland, in which schools were invited to record their earthquake stories for themselves and for historical archives. Data were gathered from five primary schools between 2012 and 2014. Methods concerned mainly semi-structured individual or group interviews and which were analysed thematically. The approach was sensitive, flexible and participatory with each school being able to choose its focus, participants and outcome. Participants from each school generally included the principal and a selection of teachers, students and parents. In this study, the data relating to the roles of teachers were separated out for closer analysis. The findings are presented as four themes: immediate response; returning to (new) normal; care and support; and long term effects.

Research papers, The University of Auckland Library

Churches are an important part of New Zealand's historical and architectural heritage. Various earthquakes around the world have highlighted the significant seismic vulnerability of religious buildings, with the extensive damage that occurred to stone and clay-brick unreinforced masonry churches after the 2010-2011 Canterbury earthquakes emphasising the necessity to better understand this structural type. Consequently, a country-wide inventory of unreinforced masonry churches is here identified. After a bibliographic and archival investigation, and a 10 000 km field trip, it is estimated that currently 297 unreinforced masonry churches are present throughout New Zealand, excluding 12 churches demolished in Christchurch because of heavy damage sustained during the Canterbury earthquake sequence. The compiled database includes general information about the buildings, their architectural features and structural characteristics, and any architectural and structural transformations that have occurred in the past. Statistics about the occurrence of each feature are provided and preliminary interpretations of their role on seismic vulnerability are discussed. The list of identified churches is reported in annexes, supporting their identification and providing their address.

Articles, UC QuakeStudies

An article from the Media Studies Journal of Aotearoa New Zealand Volume 14, Number 1. The article is titled, "Heroic Radio: a study of radio responses in the immediate aftermath of the September 2010 Earthquake in Christchurch, New Zealand". It was written by Ruth Zanker.

Research papers, The University of Auckland Library

The Global Earthquake Model’s (GEM) Earthquake Consequences Database (GEMECD) aims to develop, for the first time, a standardised framework for collecting and collating geocoded consequence data induced by primary and secondary seismic hazards to different types of buildings, critical facilities, infrastructure and population, and relate this data to estimated ground motion intensity via the USGS ShakeMap Atlas. New Zealand is a partner of the GEMECD consortium and to-date has contributed with 7 events to the database, of which 4 are localised in the South Pacific area (Newcastle 1989; Luzon 1990; South of Java 2006 and Samoa Islands 2009) and 3 are NZ-specific events (Edgecumbe 1987; Darfield 2010 and Christchurch 2011). This contribution to GEMECD represented a unique opportunity for collating, comparing and reviewing existing damage datasets and harmonising them into a common, openly accessible and standardised database, from where the seismic performance of New Zealand buildings can be comparatively assessed. This paper firstly provides an overview of the GEMECD database structure, including taxonomies and guidelines to collect and report on earthquake-induced consequence data. Secondly, the paper presents a summary of the studies implemented for the 7 events, with particular focus on the Darfield (2010) and Christchurch (2011) earthquakes. Finally, examples of specific outcomes and potentials for NZ from using and processing GEMECD are presented, including: 1) the rationale for adopting the GEM taxonomy in NZ and any need for introducing NZ-specific attributes; 2) a complete overview of the building typological distribution in the Christchurch CBD prior to the Canterbury earthquakes and 3) some initial correlations between the level and extent of earthquake-induced physical damage to buildings, building safety/accessibility issues and the induced human casualties.

Research papers, University of Canterbury Library

This paper presents a seismic velocity model of Canterbury, New Zealand based on 3D geologic surfaces and velocities from a range of data sources. The model provides the 3D crustal structure in the region at multiple length scales for seismic wave propagation simulations, such as broadband ground motion and shallow site response analyses related to understanding the ground motions and site responses during the 2010- 2011 Canterbury earthquakes. Pre-Quaternary geologic horizons are calculated based on the reinterpretation of a comprehensive network of seismic reflection surveys from seven different campaigns over the past 50 years, as well as point constraints across an array of petroleum industry drill holes. Particular attention is given to a detailed representation of Quaternary stratigraphy, representing shallow (z<250m) near-surface layers in the model. Seismic velocities are obtained from seismic reflection processing (for Vp) and also recently performed active and passive surface wave analyses (for Vs). Over 1,700 water wells in the region are used to constrain the complex inter-bedded Quaternary stratigraphy (gravels, sands, silts, organics etc.) near the coastline, including beneath urban Christchurch, which has resulted from fluvial deposition and marine regression and transgression. For the near-surface Springston and Christchurch Formations in the Christchurch urban area (z<50m), high-spatial resolution seismic velocities (including Vs30 ) were obtained from over 13,000 cone penetration tests combined with a recently developed CPT-Vs correlation.

Research papers, University of Canterbury Library

This presentation summarizes the development of high-resolution surficial soil velocity models in the Canterbury, New Zealand basin. Shallow (<30m) shear wave velocities were primarily computed based on a combination of a large database of over 15,000 cone penetration test (CPT) logs in and around Christchurch, and a recently-developed Christchurch-specific empirical correlation between soil shear wave velocity and CPT. Large active-source testing at 22 locations and ambient-wavefield surface wave and H/V testing at over 80 locations were utilized in combination with 1700 water well logs to constrain the inter-bedded stratigraphy and velocity of Quaternary sediments up to depths of several hundred meters. Finally, seismic reflection profiles and the ambient-wavefield surface wave data provide constraint on velocities from several hundred meters to several kilometres. At all depths, the high resolution data illustrates the complexity of the soil conditions in the region, and the developed 3D models are presently being used in broadband ground motion simulations to further interpret the observed strong ground motions in the 2010-2011 Canterbury earthquake sequence.

Research papers, University of Canterbury Library

This study explored the experiences of 10 leaders in their intentional six-month implementation, during the 2010-2011Christchurch earthquakes, of an adapted positive leadership model. The study concluded that the combination of strategies in the model provided psychological and participative safety for leaders to learn and to apply new ways of working. Contrary to other studies on natural disaster, workplace performance increased and absenteeism decreased. The research contributes new knowledge to the positive leadership literature and new understanding, from the perspective of leaders, of the challenges of leading in a workplace environment of ongoing natural disaster events.

Research papers, University of Canterbury Library

This thesis is concerned with springs that appeared in the Hillsborough, Christchurch during the 2010-2011 Canterbury Earthquake Sequence, and which have continued to discharge groundwater to the surface to the present time. Investigations have evolved, measurements of discharge at selected sites, limited chemical data on anions and isotope analysis. The springs are associated with earthquake generated fissures (extensional) and compression zones, mostly in loess-colluvium soils of the valley floor and lower slopes. Extensive peat swamps are present in the Hillsborough valley, with a groundwater table at ~1m below ground. The first appearance of the ‘new’ springs took place following the Mw 7.1 Darfield Earthquake on 4 September 2010, and discharges increased both in volume and extent of the Christchurch Mw 6.3 Earthquake of 22 February 2011. Five monitored sites show flow rates in the range of 4.2-14.4L/min, which have remained effectively constant for the duration of the study (2014-2015). Water chemistry analysis shows that the groundwater discharges are sourced primarily from volcanic bedrocks which underlies the valley at depths ≤50m below ground level. Isotope values confirm similarities with bedrock-sourced groundwater, and the short term (hours-days) influence of extreme rainfall events. Cyclone Lusi (2013-2014) affects were monitored and showed recovery of the bedrock derived water signature within 72 hours. Close to the mouth of the valley sediments interfinger with Waimakiriri River derived alluvium bearing a distinct and different isotope signature. Some mixing is evident at certain locations, but it is not clear if there is any influence from the Huntsbury reservoir which failed in the Port Hills Earthquake (22 February 2011) and stored groundwater from the Christchurch artesian aquifer system (Riccarton Gravel).